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Recent developments in nitric oxide donors and delivery for antimicrobial and anti-biofilm applications
Reference: Molecules (2022) 27: 674

The use of nitric oxide (NO) is emerging as a promising, novel approach for the treatment of antibiotic resistant bacteria and biofilm infections. Depending on the concentration, NO can induce biofilm dispersal, increase bacteria susceptibility to antibiotic treatment, and induce cell damage or cell death via the formation of reactive oxygen or reactive nitrogen species. The use of NO is, however, limited by its reactivity, which can affect NO delivery to its target site and result in off-target effects. To overcome these issues, and enable spatial or temporal control over NO release, various strategies for the design of NO-releasing materials, including the incorporation of photo-activable, charge-switchable, or bacteria-targeting groups, have been developed. Other strategies have focused on increased NO storage and delivery by encapsulation or conjugation of NO donors within a single polymeric framework. This review compiles recent developments in NO drugs and NO-releasing materials designed for applications in antimicrobial or anti-biofilm treatment and discusses limitations and variability in biological responses in response to the use of NO for bacterial eradiation.

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